Researcher talks of RIT’s role in finding new words on a 500-year-old map
Cultural Artifact and Document Imaging

Chet Van Duzer will speak at RIT about findings on the Columbus-era map

Mar. 13, 2015
Greg Livadas

A historically significant map from circa 1491 is yielding new information not visible until a researcher from Rochester Institute of Technology’s Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science processed images of the map collected under various colors of light.

Chet Van Duzer of California, a historian of cartography who is studying the results, will speak about the faded map and his findings Wednesday, March 18, at RIT.

His talk, at 7 p.m. in the Carlson Auditorium (Building 76), is free and open to the public and sponsored by RIT’s College of Liberal Arts and the College of Science.

The Henricus Martellus World Map, actually a painting about 6 ½ feet wide and 4 feet high, resides at the Beinecke Library at Yale University. Roger Easton, professor at RIT’s College of Science, said it is believed Christopher Columbus had a copy of this map when he sailed to America.

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“The next significantly historical map was in 1507 and says ‘America’ on it,” Easton said. It is believed the Henricus Martellus map greatly influenced the 1507 map, but it was difficult to determine because the earlier map had faded.

“We went to Yale last year to image the map and Chet has been working on it ever since,” Easton said. “We took pictures under many colors of lights and you can use different combinations of the images under different lights to try to enhance the visibility of the things that have faded. He found all kinds of surprises,” including many words in Latin not visible to the eye.

The project also involved the University of Mississippi, MegaVision of Santa Barbara, Calif., and was sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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Original Source: University News

Plenty of Eyes in the Sky, Not Enough Minds on the Ground
Remote Sensing

The U.S. Intelligence Community Must Address a Workforce Gap in Remote Sensing Analysis

Mar. 5, 2015
Dr. Darryl Murdock, USGIF Vice President of Professional Development

In today’s world of light-speed satellite communications, advanced remote sensing, and supercomputers—and the mega-data they produce—we seldom think about who is applying all of this technology to meet our national security needs. It’s easy to act as if all available data is put in one end of a computer with the necessary information emerging at the other end.

While the Intelligence Community improves the technology needed to interpret this high volume of data and information, the sheer volume of data being consistently collected around the world mutes our existing analytic capability. At the intersection of technology and human intelligence are the GEOINT analysts who pore over the data retrieved by our increasingly sophisticated remote sensing technologies, assign the data context, and create actionable knowledge. GEOINT analysts regularly apply their skills to multiple national and international threat scenarios, military operations, and natural and manmade disasters. Without these dedicated GEOINT analysts we would have eyes (in the form of satellites and UAVs) on our tumultuous world but would not understand what the images they produce mean.

The Intelligence Community faces a rising demand for highly trained geospatial and remote sensing analysts. At a time of burgeoning and unprecedented threats including terrorism, asymmetrical warfare, and social unrest across the globe, the GEOINT Community is especially challenged as its workforce ages at a rate much faster than qualified analysts enter the workforce. Steps should be taken immediately to address this widening GEOINT analyst gap. Further delay will only make this current staffing problem more difficult and costly to address in the future.

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Historical Precedent

The problem is simple to explain. In the aftermath of World War II and with the onset of the Cold War, the United States realized the pressing need for intelligence gathering. Aerospace and satellite technology developed in the ’50s and early ’60s gave the U.S. the necessary tools for this effort. Addressing the need for a highly skilled aerospace and intelligence analyst workforce, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958. The act provided U.S. universities with resources to improve technical education and graduate programs in order to produce an engineering workforce for the aerospace and intelligence gathering units of the federal government and commercial industry. This workforce was developed to observe and—more importantly—interpret the data that was just becoming available.

These first generations of intelligence analysts did a superb job during the Cold War and subsequently developed many of the remote sensing methods and technologies still used today. However, a large number of these pioneering geospatial analysts are heading into retirement and are not being replaced at a rate sufficient to bridge the mission performance gap.

A 2013 report by the National Academy of Sciences on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence claims qualified “GIS and remote sensing recruits are already hard to find.” It concluded that the nation needs to ensure an environment exists to create a STEM workforce trained specifically in remote sensing—with remote sensing being identified by the academy as one of the “five core areas on which the current production and analysis of geospatial intelligence relies.” An earlier report by the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence came to the same conclusion with respect to the projected analyst gap and recommended the U.S. government partner with universities to prepare more students for space and remote sensing analysis careers.

Positioning universities to produce more GEOINT engineers and remote sensing analysts is a national security imperative. A new national strategy is needed to ensure the health of U.S. GEOINT analyst education. However, any amendments to the National Defense Education Act to recognize the modern challenges facing the GEOINT Community and our universities would require substantial financial support. Universities should be incentivized, as was done in the ’50s, to greatly expand education and training programs and work with NGA and other U.S. intelligence agencies.


At USGIF, we strongly believe, given the current state of global security, that maintaining and expanding our nation’s GEOINT capabilities is critical—and addressing the GEOINT analyst workforce shortage is essential to doing so. We support the strengthening of the strategic relationship between the U.S. defense and intelligence communities and the U.S. academic community, particularly in STEM disciplines focused on addressing the technical collection and analysis efforts required by our nation.

To that end, I am in favor of a STEM-to-remote sensing pilot program focused on doubling the number of remote sensing analysts entering the Department of Defense and Intelligence Community within the next five years. This program could include tuition funding for up to four years, be open to both undergraduate and graduate students, and offer funded summer internships with industry, during which exposure to and work on hard problems should be the focus. All selected participants should also receive security clearance during their second program year, which would allow them to work within government facilities and on classified projects at their home school. When shown to be successful, such a program could be expanded to other geospatial intelligence sub-disciplines to develop cross-cutting, broad-based GEOINT analysts capable of producing finished intelligence products derived from a combination of remotely-sensed data, geographic information systems data, and open-source information.

Though some may argue such an initiative is not possible, similar programs have already been established in pockets around the globe. As our nation’s needs and priorities change, a STEM-to-remote sensing program could become a STEM-to-GEOINT program, which would include a strong and flexible remote sensing component.

Additional Resources

Read about the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) on Encyclopedia Brittanica.

Download a free PDF of the report, Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence, from the National Academies Press.

- See more at:

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Original Source: Trajectory Magazine

RIT scientist collaborates with UR colleagues to advance artificial tissue development
Biomedical Imaging

Maria Helguera contributes ultrasound techniques, image processing to NIH-funded project


The beginnings of artificial vascular networks created with ultrasound waves. The frequency and intensity of the waves organize the cells into position.

Feb. 2, 2015
Susan Gawlowicz

Circulating oxygen-rich blood through artificial organs and tissues is a bioengineering conundrum without an easy answer. The problem is in the plumbing. Biomedical teams around the world are working on different solutions to the problem of creating a synthetic vascular system.

Scientists at Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester are looking to ultrasound technology to create tiny blood vessels needed to nourish organs and tissues grown for reconstructive and surgical applications.

Developing complex vascular systems with high-frequency ultrasound waves is the goal of RIT imaging scientist Maria Helguera ’99 (Ph.D., imaging science), and UR’s Diane Dalecki, professor of biomedical engineering, and Denise Hocking, associate professor of pharmacology and physiology. The UR-led project is funded by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, part of the National Institutes of Health.

Helguera provides the team an expertise in ultrasound imaging and image processing through high-frequency ultrasound techniques and quantitative analysis of microscopy images of the tissue samples.

“We can use ultrasound in every stage of the process while creating artificial tissue,” said Helguera, an associate professor at RIT’s Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science. “Ultrasound is a clean way of doing things in the sense that we are not delivering any harmful radiation. We can manipulate the cells and image them without hurting the samples.”

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Ultrasound standing wave fields are generated in a tissue-culture plate containing endothelial cells embedded in collagen. Endothelial cells form the insides of blood vessels. Pressure from ultrasound standing wave fields nudges the cells into predetermined positions. The frequency and intensity of the waves organize the cells and control the density and spacing of cell bands. Samples are then polymerized in an incubator and locked into place. Their close positioning encourages cells to signal to each other and sprout three-dimensional blood vessels.

Tissue constructs are visualized with multiphoton microscopy, a technique that captures specimens in three-dimensional sections.

“Distinct and interesting formations can be seen depending on the frequency and intensity of the ultrasound stationary wave fields,” Helguera said. “We decided to quantitatively analyze these three-dimensional data sets to extract parameters characteristic of each exposure regime.”

Imaging science Ph.D. student Mohammed Yousefhussien developed an image-processing tool for evaluating the structures of the blood sprouts. Third-year imaging science student Amy Becker is modifying the tool to capture details that will help manipulate the sprouts’ growth. Determining the preferred direction in which the vessels branch outward will lead to networks resembling the vascular system within an organ.

“The goal is to design a quantitative protocol that will allow us to create a more complicated structure that is closer to a real system,” Helguera said.


Maria Helguera, associate professor in the RIT Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science

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Original Source: University News

N.Y. application for a national photonics center advances to final round

RIT joins UR, SUNY Polytechnic in leading consortium that could receive $110 million federal investment

Jan. 30, 2015
Ellen Rosen

Rochester Institute of Technology is among the leaders of a consortium named as one of three finalists in the country competing for a multimillion-dollar federal investment in a regional photonics center.

The application from the Research Foundation for the State University of New York, which includes RIT, University of Rochester, SUNY Polytechnic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Arizona, University of California at Santa Barbara and other academic and industrial partners, has advanced to the final round, Democrat New York Sens. Charles Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand and Congresswoman Louise Slaughter announced. Full proposals are due March 31 and a winner will be announced in June, they said.

“This project would allow us to build national capabilities to support this strategically important industry,” said Ryne Raffaelle, RIT vice president for research and associate provost. “With one of the largest photonics manufacturing hubs in the nation, Rochester is uniquely positioned to take the lead, and RIT’s renowned work in microelectronic systems, imaging science and packaging will play a major role. We are very grateful to Senators Schumer and Gillibrand and Congresswoman Slaughter for championing our application, and to President Obama for his leadership in recognizing the importance of the industry to our nation’s future.”

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Raffaelle said advancing photonics is essential to the nation’s manufacturing capabilities in such areas as high-speed data and telecommunications. These new technologies will allow for more information to be transmitted easier, faster and with less energy.

“Rochester is home to the world’s greatest concentration of companies, university programs and expertise in the field of photonics, and this proposed partnership would further position Rochester as a global leader in this cutting-edge industry,” Schumer said in a statement.

Gillibrand said in a statement that Rochester “would be the perfect home for the new National Institute of Photonics, and this selection to move to the final phase of consideration shows that Upstate New York’s strong community of manufacturers and innovators is prime for these types of investments.”

The application was in response to a program announced by Obama last October in which the Department of Defense will take the lead in constructing an Integrated Photonic Manufacturing Institute with a $110 million federal commitment, Slaughter said.

“Today, we are one step closer to securing a federal photonics manufacturing innovation institute. I will continue to be relentless in my efforts to secure state and federal investments for an industry that is synonymous with Rochester because I know what it means for our economy and for local jobs,” Slaughter said in a statement.

Earlier this year, RIT was named a core partner in the Chicago-based Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute and is slated for an investment of up to $20 million.

RIT has contributed to advances in the design, fabrication and manufacturing of electronic and photonic devices for more than 30 years as technology generations have progressed from the micron-scale to the nano-scale.

RIT’s leadership includes:

  • The microelectronics program, created in 1982, was the nation’s first Bachelor of Science program specializing in the fabrication of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits.
  • The microsystems engineering Ph.D. program began in RIT’s Kate Gleason College of Engineering in 2002.
  • The university’s first doctoral program was imaging science in 1990, the first of its kind in the nation.
  • More than 2,000 RIT engineers have been placed into related engineering positions across New York state and throughout the U.S., Europe and Asia.

RIT assets in this area include:

  • Semiconductor and Microsystems Fabrication Lab: This includes more than 10,000 square feet of cleanroom space dedicated to manufacturing support and workforce development.
  • The Center for Electronics Manufacturing and Assembly: The Center is an academic research lab offering the electronics packaging industry research services, failure analysis, training, process development, consulting and laboratory rental.
  • RIT Nanophotonics Group: The group aims to demonstrate optoelectronic chips that will revolutionize future computing, communication and sensing systems.
  • The Center for Detectors: The center designs, develops and implements new advanced sensor technologies through collaboration with academic researchers, industry engineers, government scientists and university/college students.
  • The IT Collaboratory: The NYSERDA funded IT Collaboratory
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Original Source: University News

Imaging Science Sophomore Named Liberty League Field Athlete of the Week

Track and field standout Nick Ng garners Liberty League Field Athlete of the Week honor

Jan. 27, 2015
Joe Venniro


ROCHESTER, NY - Sophomore jumper Nick Ng (Wayland, MA/Wayland) of the RIT men's track and field team, was named the Liberty League Field Athlete of the Week on Monday, for the week ending Jan. 25, 2015. It is his first weekly honor.

Ng placed fourth in the long jump with a leap of 6.50 meters at the Brockport Golden Eagle Invitational on Saturday. It was a personal best for the sophomore.

The Tigers are back in action on Saturday, Jan. 31 at the Robert J. Kane Invitational, hosted by Cornell University.

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Original Source: RIT Athletics

Could Rochester be world's drone capital?
Remote Sensing

Jan. 17, 2015
Sean Lahman

(Photo: Mark Lennihan / AP)

On Monday, CNN announced that it was working with federal regulators to develop ways to use unmanned aerial vehicles as a newsgathering tool.

It's a significant step, since the Federal Aviation Administration generally prohibits commercial use of these devices, commonly referred to as drones or UAVs. They're concerned about these inexpensive fliers getting in the way of commercial aircraft, of course, but the agency has been slow to adapt existing rules to accommodate the new technology.

In 2012, Congress ordered the FAA to develop a plan for getting drones integrated into the national airspace, but progress has not come quickly. To date, the FAA has granted exemptions to just 13 companies, many of them in the motion picture business.

As a journalist, I'm excited about CNN's effort. Drones can aid in reporting and providebreathtaking views by shooting still images or video from a few hundred feet in the air. CNN senior vice president David Vigilante echoed those sentiments in a statement.

"Our aim is to get beyond hobby-grade equipment and to establish what options are available and workable to produce high quality video journalism using various types of UAVs and camera setups," Vigilante said.

But I'm excited for a more important reason. Once the FAA issues its drone regulations — a plan is due in September of this year — the drone business is going to explode.

Rochester ought to be at the epicenter of that explosion.

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Look, we know all about photography here. Even in the digital age, we've got a tremendous aggregation of experts in imaging science working in this region, some of the brightest minds in the world.

But the coming boom isn't simply about capturing cool images. It's about harnessing computing power to do things with those images. And we've got the experts in that field as well.

Pictometry International, a Henrietta-based company, developed the technique of stitching together aerial photos from low-flying airplanes to create overhead images that look three-dimensional. They've also developed software and algorithms that can pinpoint locations in those photos by latitude and longitude, and even make precise measurements of things like the square footage of a building's roof.

The folks at Exelis Geospatial Systems in Gates work from even greater heights. Their researchers have designed and built the camera systems for the majority of commercial imaging satellites that have been launched, starting with the first one in 1999. Even from 373 miles in the air and traveling at 17,000 mph, they can pinpoint a spot on the ground to within a few meters.

It's this sort of technology that's really going to drive the commercial applications of drones. Software that can analyze images taken from drones to do new things, or to do old things in new ways.

Farmers could use drones to look for crop or irrigation problems, or even to keep a watch on their livestock. Utility companies could use drones to inspect pipelines or electrical wires. Imagine how a drone could change the job of a building inspector, for example, by using its camera to take measurements and identify trouble spots in areas that are difficult and dangerous for a person to go.

There are other pockets of local expertise, not the least of which is at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The school was selected by the FAA in 2013 to conduct research and testing of safe integration of drones into the national airspace system, one of a few dozen universities in the northeast collaborating on that work. RIT also has the highly regarded Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Lab, which is going to help churn out the new engineers who will put those drones to work.

Rochester ought to be the drone capital of the world. We're uniquely positioned in advance of a boom, and everyone knows how desperately we need good paying high tech jobs.

Let's make it happen.

Sean Lahman's column appears in print on Sundays. Follow him on Twitter @SeanLahman, or reach him by email at or at (585) 258-2369.

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Original Source: Democrat & Chronicle

CIS 2013-2014 Annual Report Now Available

The 2013-2014 Annual Report for the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science at RIT is now available.

Jan. 8, 2015


Previous Reports

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CIS High School Intern Program Now Accepting Applications

The 2015 application cycle for the CIS High School Summer Intern program is open through March 6.

Jan. 6, 2015

The summer of 2015 marks the sixteenth year of the high school summer internship program at the Center for Imaging Science. This unique program offers a limited number of highly qualified juniors the opportunity to work side-by-side with world class scientists on a variety of imaging-related research projects.

These unpaid internships give students the chance to get valuable hands-on experience in a real laboratory setting as contributing members of a research team. The internship program also provides an opportunity for interaction with other students from surrounding school districts who have similar interests and ambitions. Professional development activities, team building exercises, and at least one field trip are additional benefits.

Participation in this program is free, and upon successful completion of research students are provided a certificate of completion as well as letters of recommendation.

All current high school juniors* are eligible to apply. Application instructions as well as more information are available via our High School Internship webpage

*Notice regarding non-local applicants: While this internship is not limited to local high school students, it is not within the bandwidth of the program to offer any housing or housing assistance. If a non-local student wishes to apply, they must prepare appropriate living arrangements independently. 

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Could Glitter Help Solve NASA's Giant Telescope Problem?
Astronomy and Space Science

Listen to the Story: All Things Considered (2 min 55 sec) ( Download MP3   |   Transcript )

Dec. 23, 2014
Joe Palca

Larkin Carey, an optical engineer with Ball Aerospace, examines two test mirror segments designed for the James Webb Space Telescope. The mirror for the scope is extremely powerful, but heavy and pricey.

Larkin Carey, an optical engineer with Ball Aerospace, examines two test mirror segments designed for the James Webb Space Telescope. The mirror for the scope is extremely powerful, but heavy and pricey. (Image courtesy NASA)

NASA is building a new space telescope with astounding capabilities. The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2018, will replace the aging Hubble Space Telescope and will provide unprecedented views of the first galaxies to form in the early universe. It might even offer the first clear glimpse of an Earth-like planet orbiting a distant star.

But there's a problem with the James Webb telescope: It's expensive. Very expensive — $8 billion expensive. So NASA has been looking for cheaper alternatives for future telescopes, and Grover Swartzlander, a physicist specializing in optics at the Rochester Institute of Technology, thinks he has one.


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Astronomers use giant mirrors to capture the light from stars and galaxies, Swartzlander explains, and the bigger the mirror, the finer the detail a telescope can see.

But giant mirrors are heavy and expensive. (The Webb's mirror weighs more than 800 pounds, not counting the structure that holds it. The entire spacecraft weighs around 7 tons.) So Swartzlander and his colleagues came up with the idea of making telescope mirrors that weigh practically nothing, because they are made of what is essentially glitter. Yes, that stuff you buy in a crafts store — tiny reflecting particles made of plastic with a metal coating.

The idea, he says, is to take the shiny particles into space, spray a cloud of them outside the spacecraft, and then use lasers on the spacecraft to manipulate them into the shape of a mirror.

"By controlling all these little glittery objects in space and sweeping laser beams across them we're going to orient them and stabilize them enough so that we can form some kind of an image," says Swartzlander.

Now, there is a problem here. Yes, the mirror would be lightweight, but it wouldn't be a mirror with a smooth surface like you get with a glass mirror. So the image that the mirror sends to the telescope's detector will essentially look like a bunch of speckles.

"It's going to be a very terrible image," he admits. "But, the real progress on this topic is that there's a new trend in imaging which is called computational photography." By analyzing a series of these speckled images, he says, a computer will be able to construct a good, clean image of the object.

Swartzlander says it will take decades to perfect the technology for making glitter mirrors that can fly in space. But that doesn't mean this is just a pie-in-the-sky idea.

"We've already demonstrated this glitter concept in the laboratory," he says. The researchers went to their local craft store, bought a jar of glitter and sprinkled it onto a concave surface.

Then they used a camera to make an image of what the mirror was pointed at. "One of my smart graduate students worked on some algorithms to actually achieve a perfect image," Swartzlander says.

He hopes to send a pint-size version of his glitter mirror into space in the next few years.

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Original Source: NPR

Fly-By Forestry Takes Off
Remote Sensing

Remote laser imaging can measure the health and density of forests, allowing scientists to observe large swaths of vital ecosystems all at once.

Dec. 16, 2014
Catherine Clabby

2015-01SightingsF1.jpgClick to Enlarge Image

Despite some scattered recent gains, the world’s forests are in trouble. From 2000 to 2012, the planet lost a net total of 1.5 million square kilometers of forestland, according to a 2013 survey based on NASA satellite data. Much of the decline was due to deforestation in Brazil, Indonesia, and other tropical countries, but there have been many other setbacks as well. In the western United States, for instance, trees face an onslaught of wildfires, insect infestations, and drought. The assaults persist despite a growing awareness of the ecological value of forests, particularly their ability to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide and sequester carbon.

As they formulate ways to protect endangered woodlands and rehabilitate ones already lost, scientists and governments need detailed information on the structures and vulnerabilities of forests around the world. Traditional ground-based surveys lack sufficient scope, so scientists are turning to another way to take the measure of the trees: light detection and ranging, or LiDAR, remote-imaging technology. Airplane-borne LiDAR scanners shoot 100,000 pulses of laser light per second to record the distance to the ground. From those data, researchers can measure the shape, type, and density of forest cover over tens of thousands of square kilometers. “That is the real power of LiDAR,” says Van Kane, an ecologist at the University of Washington who uses the technique extensively. “We can build tremendously large databases.”

2015-01SightingsF2.jpgClick to Enlarge Image

In one notable recent study, Kane and his colleagues used LiDAR to observe how fires of various intensities affect the forests in Yosemite National Park. Some fires are known to help keep forests healthy by creating gaps in their canopies that enable new growth. Kane’s LiDAR-based studies show more specifically that low- severity fires produce favorable density changes in areas dominated by red fir forests, but fires of moderate severity are needed to improve areas dominated by ponderosa and white fir–sugar pine trees. Kane has also combined airborne LiDAR with satellite vegetation data to study how natural fires alter tree density of Yosemite forests. They do so in more irregular ways than was previously known, creating variable mosaics of tree clumps. Those studies will aid forest managers designing controlled burns or mechanical thinning to mimic natural fire’s positive effects.

2015-01SightingsF3.jpgClick to Enlarge Image

Now the drive is on to make LiDAR even more useful. For instance, airborne LiDAR discerns only modest amounts of detail below the outer canopy in dense forests, so researchers are trying to fill the gap by adding measurements made with ground-based LiDAR. David Kelbe, a doctoral student in imaging science at Rochester Institute of Technology, recently adapted an industrial LiDAR device to create a portable scanner that can be carried into the woods. There, it can be used to acquire diameter data along the full length of tree trunks with enough detail to model three-dimensional trees. Such data could be useful for commercial forest inventories and for habitat studies, and also for calibrating across the different types of LiDAR studies. “We could take advantage of the fine-scale resolution by linking it to the large geographic coverage by an airborne or space-borne platform,” Kelbe says.

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Carnegie Airborne Observatory earth scientist Greg Asner merges up-close and remote observations to get as near as possible to ground truth in tropical forests. He creates carbon maps, geographically accurate models depicting the density of vegetation in the forests; the more abundant the vegetation, the more carbon is sequestered in its roots, stems, and leaves.

To build these maps, Asner combines airborne LiDAR data with non-LiDAR research plot observations, rainfall records, and space-based measurements. By developing algorithms to extract high-resolution vegetation maps from archival data taken by the Landsat satellite, he quickly acquired a vast—and free—satellite data set.

2015-01SightingsF4.jpgClick to Enlarge Image

Following this approach, Asner has mapped large swaths of the Amazon River basin, Peru, Panama, and Hawaii to pinpoint where carbon sinks most urgently need protecting. He feels the urgency of his work: It can take decades to rebuild a damaged forest into a carbon sink, but almost no time at all to cut or burn a forest down. “So we integrate satellite data with the airborne LiDAR in order to scale up,” Asner says. “This helps to greatly reduce cost and improve our speed.”

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Original Source: American Scientist