Scott Brown

Scott Brown's picture

Research Details

Research Interests
  • Modeling and simulation of remote sensing systems
  • Performance aspects of multi-spectral, hyper-spectral, polarized and laser radar systems

Personal Information

Contact Information
Location: Off-site in Falmouth, MA
Office: (585) 298-9505
Email: brown@cis.rit.edu
54 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Title and Degrees
Associate Scientist
Modeling and Simulation Group Lead

Ph.D., Environmental Engineering (UB)
M.S., Computer Science (RIT)
B.S., Imaging Science (RIT)
Personal Web Page
http://www.cis.rit.edu/~sdbpci

Job Responsibilities

Details
Project Lead for DIRSIG modeling effort

Publications

REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES

    Schott, J.R.; Gerace, A.D.; Brown, S.D.; Gartley, M.G.; Montanaro, M.; Reuter, D, Simulation of Image Performance Characteristics of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Remote Sensing, 4, pp. 2477-2491 (2012)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Gross, H.N.; Robinson, G.D., An advanced synthetic image generation model and its application to multi/hyperspectral algorithm development, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 2, pp. 99-111 (1999)


CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

    Kerekes, J.P.; Zhang, J.; Goodenough, A.A.; Brown, S.D., Theoretical modeling of lidar return phenomenology from snow and ice surfaces, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2013, IGARSS'13, IGARSS, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, pp. 616-619, July (2013)

    Kerekes, J.P.; Goodenough, A.A.; Brown, S.D.; Zhang, J.; Csatho, B.; Schenk, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Wheelwright, R., First Principles Modeling for Lidar Sensing of Complex Ice Surfaces, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium - Proceedings, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2012, Munich, Bavaria, Germany, pp. 3241-3244, July (2012)

    Schott, J.R.; Gerace, A.D.; Brown, S.D., Incorporation of advanced sensor Models in DIRSIG., Proceeding of IEEE, 34th Reveiw of Atmospheric Transmission Models Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, June (2012)

    Gerace, A.D.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Gartley, M.G., Using DIRSIG to identify uniform sites and demonstrate the utility of the side-slither calibration technique for Landsat's new pushbroom instruments. , SPIE, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectal, and Ultraspectral Imagery XVIII, 83902A, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, May (2012)

    Schott, J.R.; Gerace, A.D.; Brown, S.D.; Gartley, M.G., Modeling the Imaging Performance of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensors, SPIE Optics + Photonics, Earth Observing Systems, XVI, 8153, 81530F, San Diego, California, United States, August (2011)

    Schott, J.R.; Gerace, A.D.; Brown, S.D.; Gartley, M.G., Modeling the Imaging Performance of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensors, SPIE Optics + Photonics, Earth Observing Systems, XVI, San Diego, California, United States (2011)

    Speir, J.A.; Schott, J.R.; Goodenough, A.A.; Brown, S.D., Validation of In-Water 3D Radiative Transfer using DIRSIG, IEEE, WHISPERS 2010, Reykjavik, ., Iceland, June (2010)

    Paul, S.E.; Goodenough, A.A.; Brown, S.D.; Salvaggio, C., Sub-pixel radiometry: A three-part study in generating synthetic imagery that incorporates sub-pixel variation, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XVI, Modeling and Simulation, 7695, Orlando, Florida, United States, April (2010)

    Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V.; Raqueno, N.G.; Brown, S.D., A Synthetic Sensor/Image Simulation Tool to Support the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), Proceedings of ASPRS, ASPRS, Opportunities for Emerging Geospatial Technologies, 2010 Annual conference, San Diego, California, United States, April (2010)

    Hagstrom, S.; Messinger, D.W.; Brown, S.D., Feature extraction using voxel aggregation of focused discrete LIDAR data, SPIE, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XV, 7684, Orlando, Florida, USA (2010)

    Montanaro, M.; Salvaggio, C.; Brown, S.D.; Messinger, D.W.; Garrett, A.J.; Bollinger, J.S., Radiometric modeling of mechanical draft cooling towers to assist in the extraction of their absolute temperature from remote thermal imagery, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Thermosense XXXI, Infrared Sensors and Systems, 7299, 8, Orlando, Florida, United States, April (2009)

    Kerekes, J.P.; Presnar, M.D.; Fourspring, K.D.; Ninkov, Z.; Pogorzala, D.R.; Raisenan, A.D.; Rice, A.C.; Vasquez, J.R.; Patel, J.P.; MacIntyre, R.; Brown, S.D., Sensor Modeling and Demonstration of a Multi-Object Spectrometer for Performance Driven Sensing, SPIE, Proceedings of Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XV, 7334, DOI: 10.1117/12.819265, Orlando, Florida, United States (2009)

    Gartley, M.G.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Micro-scale modeling of contaminant effects on surface optical properties, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE, Imaging Spectrometry XIII, 7086, 70860H, San Diego, California, United States, August (2008)

    Ward, J.T.; Schott, J.R.; Sanders, N.J.; Brown, S.D., Driving Realistic Texture in Simulated Long-Wave Infrared Imagery, Proceedings of IEEE, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2008, 3, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, pp. 728 -731, July (2008)

    Montanaro, M.; Salvaggio, C.; Messinger, D.W.; Brown, S.D.; Garrett, A.J., Apparent temperature dependence on localized atmospheric water vapor, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Sensor Data Exploitation and Target Recognition, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XIV, 6966, 696618, Orlando, Florida, United States of America, pp. 1505-1516, April (2008)

    Gartley, M.G.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Micro-scale surface and contaminate modeling for polarimetric signature prediction, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE, Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing VIII , 6972, 697213, Orlando, Florida, United States, March (2008)

    Jakubowski, M.K.; Pogorzala, D.R.; Hattenberger, T.J.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Synthetic data generation of high-resolution hyperspectral data using DIRSIG, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Imaging Spectrometry XII, 6661, 66610G, San Diego, California, United States, August (2007)

    Gartley, M.G.; Brown, S.D.; Goodenough, A.A.; Sanders, N.J.; Schott, J.R., Polarimetric scene modeling in the thermal infrared, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE, Polarization Science and Remote Sensing III, 6682, 66820C, San Diego, California, United States, August (2007)

    Montanaro, M.; Salvaggio, C.; Brown, S.D.; Messinger, D.W.; Goodenough, A.A.; Garrett, A.J.; Villa-Aleman, E., Radiometric modeling of cavernous targets to assist in the determination of absolute temperature for input to process models, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Sensor Data Exploitation and Target Recognition, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XIII, 6565, 656511, doi:10.1117/12.718666, Orlando, Florida, United States of America, pp. 656511/1-656511/10, April (2007)

    Blevins, D.D.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., First-principles-based LIDAR simulation environment for scenes with participating mediums, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, Session II, 6214, 62140G, Orlando (Kissimmee), Florida, United States, April (2006)

    Goodenough, A.A.; Raqueno, R.V.; Bellandi, M.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., A flexible hyperspectral simulation tool for complex littoral environments, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Photonics for Port and Harbor Security II, Subsurface Change/Threat Detection, 6204, 62040F, Orlando (Kissimmee), Florida, United States, April (2006)

    Lach, S.R.; Brown, S.D.; Kerekes, J.P., Semi-automated DIRSIG Scene Modeling from 3D LIDAR and Passive Imaging Sources, Proceedings of Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, Defense and Security Symposium, 6214, Orlando, Florida (2006)

    Brown, S.D.; Blevins, D.D.; Schott, J.R., Time-gated topographic LIDAR scene simulation, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Laser Radar Technology and Applications X, Modeling and Simulation, 5791, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 342-353, March (2005)

    Baccheschi, N.L.; Brown, S.D.; Kerekes, J.P.; Schott, J.R., Generation of a Combined Dataset of Simulated Radar and EO/IR Imagery, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XI, Modeling and Simulation, 5806, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 88-89, March (2005)

    Barcomb, K.E.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Hattenberger, T.J., High Resolution, Slant Angle Scene Generation and Validation of Concealed Targets in DIRSIG, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Imaging Spectrometry X, Spectral Applications, Modeling, and Simulation, 5546, Denver, Colorado, United States, pp. 300-311, August (2004)

    Peterson, E.D.; Brown, S.D.; Hattenberger, T.J.; Schott, J.R., Surface and Buried Landmine Scene Generation and Validation using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) Model, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Imaging Spectrometry X, Spectral Applications, Modeling, and Simulation, 5546, Denver, Colorado, United States, pp. 312-323, August (2004)

    Brown, S.D.; Ientilucci, E.J., Wide-Area Electro-Optical Hyperspectral Scene Simulation for Algorithm Performance Evaluation, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Defense and Security, Targets and Backgrounds X: Characterization and Representation, 5431, Orlando, Florida, United States, April (2004)

    Scanlan, N.W.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Performance analysis of improved methodology for incorporation of spatial/spectral variability in synthetic hyperspectral imagery, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Imaging Spectrometry IX, Algorithms, 5159, San Diego, California, United States, pp. 319-330, August (2003)

    Ientilucci, E.J.; Brown, S.D., Advances in Wide Area Hyperspectral Image Simulation, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE AeroSense, Targets and Backgrounds IX: Characterization and Representation, Scene Signature Modeling and Measurement Analysis, 5075, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 110-121, April (2003)

    Burton, R.R.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Elastic ladar synthetic image generation model, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Modeling, Simulation, and Databases, Imaging Spectrometry VIII, 4816, DOI: 10.1117/12.451630, Seattle, Washington, United States, pp. 144-155, July (2002)

    Meyers, J.P.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Incorporation of polarization in DIRSIG synthetic image generation model, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Imaging Spectrometry VIII, Modeling, Simulation, and Databases, 4816, Seattle, Washington, United States, pp. 132-143, July (2002)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Richardson, M.J., The Role of Physical Modeling and Scene Simulation in Support of Space Based Remote Sensing, Proceedings of Core Technologies for Space Systems, Core Technologies for Space Systems, 2001 Conference, ., Colorado, United States, November (2001)

    Brown, S.D.; Gray, R.; Schott, J.R., Scene construction methodologies and techniques, Proceedings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference 2000, Houghton, Michigan, United States, August (2000)

    Brown, S.D.; Alain, F.; Schott, J.R., Simulation environment for modeling Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) instruments., Proceddings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference 2000, Houghton, Michigan, United States, August (2000)

    Shetler, B.V.; Mergens, D.; Chang, C.; Mertz, F.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Strunce, R.; Maher, F.; Kubica, S.; de Jonckheere, R.; Tousley, B., A comprehensive hyperspectral system simulation I: Integrated sensor scene modeling and the simulation architecture, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Algorithms for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery VI, 4049, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 94-104, April (2000)

    Arnold, P.S.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Hyperspectral simulation of chemical weapon dispersal patterns using DIRSIG, Proceedings of SPIE, SPIE, Targets and Backgrounds VI: Characterization, Visualization, and the Detection Process, Calibration and Validation of Imaging Systems, 4029, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 288-299, April (2000)

    Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Characterization techniques for incorporating backgrounds into DIRSIG, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Targets and Backgrounds VI: characterization, Visualization, and the Detection process, Scene Estimation Technologies, 4029, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 205-216, April (2000)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V., Advanced synthetic Image Generation Models and their Application to Multi/Hyper-Spectral Algorithm Development, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, Remote Sensing, 3584, Washington, DC, United States, pp. 211-220, October (1998)

    Brown, S.D.; Joseph, D; Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V., Evaluation of DIRSIG for solar and emissive region hyperspectral image simulations, Proceedings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Houghton, Michigan, United States, August (1998)

    Ientilucci, E.J.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V., Multi-spectral Simulation Environment for Modeling Low-Light-Level Sensor Systems, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE Annual Meeting, Image Intensifiers and Applications; and Characteristics and Consequences of Space Debris and Near-Earth Objects, Low-Light-Level Imaging, 3434, San Diego, California, United States, pp. 10-19, July (1998)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Incorporation of enhanced texture/transition modeling tools into a synthetic image generation model, Proceedings of IEEE, IEEE, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Sympsoium (IGARSS) 1998, 3, Seattle, Washington, United States, pp. 1508-1511, July (1998)

    Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V., Critical image formation parameters in thermal hyperspectral image simulations, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation IV, Tareget and Background Representation for Synthetic Test Environments, 3375, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 313-323, April (1998)

    Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Schott, J.R., Incorporation of bi-directional characteristics into the digital imaging and remote sensing image generation model, Proceedings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Houghton, Michigan, United States, August (1997)

    Schott, J.R.; Kuo, D.S.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V., Prediction of observed image spectra using synthetic image generation models, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Imaging Spectrometry III, Target Detection, 3118, San Diego, California, United States, pp. 81-93, July (1997)

    Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V.; Kraska, T; White, R, Validation and Analysis of the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory's Synthetic Image Generation Model, DIRSIG, Proceedings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Houghton, Michigan, United States, August (1996)

    Raqueno, R.V.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Incorporation of transmissive scene-element modeling in multispectral image simulation tools, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, Imaging Through the Atmosphere, 2828, Denver, Colorado, United States, pp. 374-385, August (1996)

    Salacain, J; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Schott, J.R., Incorporation of sensor geometry effects in synthetic image generation models, Proceedings of the Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Ground Target Modeling and Validation, Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference, Houghton, Michigan, United States, pp. 420-434, August (1995)

    Schott, J.R.; Salvaggio, C.; Brown, S.D.; Rose, R.A., Incorporation of texture in multispectral synthetic image generation tools, Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE AeroSense, Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation, Models and Generators, 2469, Orlando, Florida, United States of America, pp. 189-196, April (1995)

    Easton, R.L.; Comeau, M.J.; Brown, S.D.; Ehrhard, D.G., Hybrid optical system for frequency-domain texture classification of Imagery, Automatic Object Recognition IV, Automatic Object Recognition IV, Automatic Object Recognition IV, Automatic Object Recognition IV, 2234, Orlando, Florida, United States, pp. 265-274, April (1994)


TECHNICAL REPORTS

    Schott, J.R.; Gerace, A.D.; Raqueno, N.G.; Gartley, M.G.; Brown, S.D.; Rogers, M, A synthetic sensor/image simulation tool to support the Landsat data continuity mission (LDCM), prepared for NASA, Contract #NNX09AQ57A, Report Covering 09/10 – 08/11, RIT/DIRS, Rochester, New York, United States, July (2011)

    Schott, J.R.; Raqueno, R.V.; Raqueno, N.G.; Gartley, M.G.; Brown, S.D.; Parkes, J.D.; Miller, J.S., A synthetic sensor/image simulation tool to support the Landsat data continuity mission (LDCM), prepared for NASA, 10-51-181, contract no. NASA, RIT, Rochester, New York, United States, October (2010)

    Brown, S.D.; Salvaggio, C., DIRSIG LIDAR Capabilities, prepared for LaSen, Incorporated, RIT/DIRS Report 03/04-71-164, Rochester Institute of Technology, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States of America, November (2004)

    Kloiber, J.C.; Klatt, J.W.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Error Characterization and tutorial of spectral products, RIT/DIRS Report 00/01-75-160, RIT/DIRS, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, February (2001)

    Brown, S.D.; Ientilucci, E.J.; Raqueno, R.V.; Schott, J.R., DIRSIG/GENESSIS Hybrid Hyperspectral System Simulation of the Fort AP Hill Site, prepared for Photon Research Associates, RIT/DIRS Report 00/01-71-162, Rochester Institute of Technology, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, January (2001)

    Ientilucci, E.J.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Low-Light-Level Simulations and Extended Area Source Modeling, prepared for Eastman Kodak Company (Federal Systems Division), RIT/DIRS Report 00/01-68-159, Rochester Institute of Technology, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, January (2001)

    Arnold, P.S.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Modeling and Simulating Chemical Weapon Dispersal patterns in DIRSIG, prepared for Army's Aberdeen Proving Grounds, RIT/DIRS Reprt 98/99-74-159, RIT/DIRS, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, October (1999)

    Kociolowicz, A.L.; Sanders, L.C.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Schott, J.R., Atmospheric correction errors for an operational remote sensing system, prepared for Boeing Aerospace, ., ., ., United States, September (1998)

    Sanders, L.C.; Kociolowicz, A.L.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Schott, J.R., Evaluation of atmospheric correction techniques on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing images, prepared for Central Intelligence Agency, RIT/DIRS Report 98/98-61, RIT/DIRS, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, June (1998)

    Sanders, L.C.; Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Gallagher, T.W., Absolute calibration and atmospheric correction, Task 4, prepared for National Reconnaissance Office, RIT/DIRS Report 96/97-60-157, RIT/DIRS, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, March (1997)

    Barnes, P.L.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., In scene atmospheric correction for multispectral imagery, Task 3, prepared for National Reconnaissance Office, RIT/DIRS Report 96/97-68-156, RIT/DIRS, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rochester, New York, United States, March (1997)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Raqueno, R.V.; Ientilucci, E.J., Characterization of the Spectral Correlation of Imaging Spectrometer Data, prepared for Eastman Kodak Company (Federal Systems Division), SIDE Report 96-51-107, SIDE, Rochester, New York, United States, December (1996)

    Brown, S.D.; Ientilucci, E.J.; Schott, J.R., Generation of Synthetic Images for use in Evaluation of Exploitation Tools, prepared for Eastman Kodak Company (Federal Systems Division), SIDE Report 96-71-106, SIDE, Rochester, New York, United States, January (1996)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Tantalo, T.; Raqueno, R.V., Quantitative and phenomenological evaluation of the performance of a synthetic image generation model: DIRSIG, prepared for Eastman Kodak, Report 95-51-105, Rochester Institute of Technology, College of Science, Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing, Rochester, New York, United States, April (1995)


BOOK CHAPTERS

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D.; Barsi, J.A., Calibration of Thermal Infrared, Thermal Remote Sensing in Land Surface Processes, 2nd Edition, D. Quattrochi & J. Luvall, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States (2004)

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Calibration of Thermal Infrared (TIR) Sensors, Thermal Remote Sensing in Land Surface Processes, 1st Edition, Dale Quattrochi and Jeffrey Luvall, Ann Arbor Press, Chapter 10, Chelsea, Michigan, United States (1999)


OTHER

    Schott, J.R.; Brown, S.D., Recent advances in the DIRSIG Synthetic Scene Generation Model, (1999)

    Fairbanks, R.R.; Schott, J.R.; Vodacek, A.; Rhody, H.E.; Brown, S.D., HydroMOD: A water quality remote sensing prediction tool, (1999)


CONFERENCE PRESENTATION (NO PROCEEDINGS)

    Ientilucci, E.J.; Brown, S.D.; Schott, J.R., Low-Light-Level Simulations, SPIE, SPIE Northeast Regional Conference on Optoelectronic, Photonics, and Imaging, Rochester, New York, United Sates, April (2001)