Above: HST/WFPC2 composite image of the planetary
nebula M 2-9
Lower left: HST Heritage Team image of the planetary nebula NGC 2346
Lower right: KPNO/Phoenix spectral images of molecular hydrogen emission from NGC 2346
The second meeting devoted to Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 3-6, 1999.
This was exactly five years after the first APN meeting, which was held in Israel and organized by Noam Soker and Amos Harpaz of the University of Haifa, Israel. For this second meeting, the organizers were Joel Kastner (RIT; email@example.com), Noam Soker, and Saul Rappaport (MIT). The scientific advisory committee was Howard Bond, Yervant Terzian, Sun Kwok, Arturo Manchado, Bruce Balick, & Stuart Pottasch. Planning for subsequent meeting is already underway.
The aim of this series of conferences is to discuss the physical processes that cause planetary nebulae to develop non spherical structure, and the relationship between such structure and PN evolution and chemistry. Topics include: origins of PN asymmetries in single stars, binaries, planets, and/or circumstellar disks; main sequence vs. post-main sequence origins of PN asymmetries; microstructures (FLIERS; jets; etc); wind interactions and instabilities; ionization; molecular envelopes; interaction with the ISM; and other topics and systems related to asymmetrical planetary nebulae.
Click here for instructions concerning how to order the proceedings book, Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae II: From Origins to Microstructures (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, Volume 199, 2000; Kastner, Soker, & Rappaport, eds.).