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ROY S. BERNS
Richard S. Hunter Professor
Munsell Color Science Laboratory
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science
Rochester Institute of Technology
54 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, New York  14623-5604

Telephone:  (585) 475-2230
Fax: (585) 475-4444

berns@cis.rit.edu
http://www.cis.rit.edu/people/faculty/berns/

 

EDUCATION:

Doctor of Philosophy, Chemistry (Color Science Concentration), 1983

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.

Dissertation: Color-constant extensions of the Munsell Book of Color.

Master of Science, Textile Science, 1978

University of California at Davis.

Thesis: The effect of microwave vs. conduction heating on the diffusivity of substituted anthraquinone disperse dyes into poly(ethylene terepthalate) from N,N-dimethylformamide assisted aqueous systems.

Bachelor of Science, Major: Textile Science, Minor: Textile Design, graduated with high honors, 1976

University of California at Davis.

Thesis: The use of a bidirectional colorimeter as a lustermeter in evaluating the surface attributes of fabric pretreated with delustrants.

 

EMPLOYMENT:

Rochester Institute of Technology, 1984-present.

Assistant Professor, photographic science and color science departments, 1984-1987.

Interim Director, Munsell Color Science Laboratory, 1986-1987.

Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology, 1987-present.

Director, Munsell Color Science Laboratory, 1987-1996.

Associate Professor, Center for Imaging Science, 1987-1997.

Full Professor, Center for Imaging Science, 1997-present.

National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1999-2000

Visiting Senior Fellow in Conservation Science

Rensselaer Color Measurement Laboratory, Research Assistant, 1980-1983.

Custom Finishing Incorporated, Laboratory Manager, 1978-1980.

University of California at Davis, Teaching Assistant, 1976-1978.

  

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

International Commission on Illumination (CIE)

Chairman, TC 2-26 Measurement of color self luminous displays

Chairman, TC 1-43 Rod intrusion in metameric color matches

Member, TC 1-28 Parameters affecting colour difference evaluation

Member, TC 1-29 Industrial color difference equations

Member, TC 1-32 Prediction of corresponding colors

Member, TC 1-47 Hue and lightness-dependent correction to industrial color-difference evaluation

Member, TC 2-28 Methods of characterizing spectrophotometers

Member, TC 2-11 Gonioreflectometry of standard materials

 


PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS CONTINUED:

American Society for Testing and Materials, Committee E-12 Appearance of materials

Society of Imaging Science and Technology

Councillor, Rochester Chapter, 1985-1988

Inter-Society Color Council

Board of Directors, 1987-1990

Conference and program chair, Williamsburg conference on color discrimination psychophysics, 1989

Macbeth Award recipient, 1990

Co-chairman, Interest group I on measurement and colorimetry, 1988-1990

Chairman, Macbeth Award committee, 1992, 1996

Council for Optical Radiation Measurements

Board of Directors, 1987-1990

Conference and program co-chairman, Annual meeting, 1990

 

EXPERIENCE:

Dr. Berns attended the University of California at Davis and obtained both Bachelor and Master degrees in textile science.  He studied with Dr. Howard Needles in improving dyeability of polyester fibers via microwave heating, solvent assistance, and non-ionic surfactant pre-treatment.  While at the University of California, he was a teaching assistant with laboratory teaching responsibilities of courses in textile dyeing, printing, and finishing in both the Design and the Textile departments.

In 1978, Dr. Berns moved to Southern California and joined the Printing Department of Custom Finishing Incorporated, a contract carpet dyeing and finishing firm.  As laboratory manager, he supervised and was directly involved in the following areas: visual and computer-assisted instrumental color matching, product development, and material quality assurance for continuous dyed and printed carpets.

In fall 1980, he received a research assistantship to attend Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to study color science under the direction of Dr. Fred Billmeyer, Jr.  While at Rensselaer, Dr. Berns received a Kollmorgen Foundation Grant to develop computer algorithms to be used in improving the color constancy of the Munsell Book of Color.  He received his doctorate degree after studying with Dr. Billmeyer for three and one half years.

In 1984, Dr. Berns joined the Munsell Color Science Laboratory as an Assistant Professor in Photographic Science at the Rochester Institute of Technology.  Along with Dr. Franc Grum, Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory, he developed research, measurement, and academic programs in color science.  His primary responsibilities included academic curricula, industrial short courses and seminars, and research in color science, appearance, and technology.

In December, 1985, Dr. Franc Grum was killed in an automobile accident.  Dr. Berns assumed the responsibility of directing the Munsell Laboratory on an interim basis.  During this time period, a master of science in Color Science was established.  In addition, research was initiated in the areas of color discrimination, modeling and correcting spectrophotometric errors, CRT colorimetry, and color appearance.

In May, 1987, Dr. Berns was named the Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance and Technology.  Implicit in this distinguished professorship is the responsibility to assume a leadership role in color related activities on the RIT campus and to initiate research specifically in the interaction of geometric properties of materials and color appearance and generally in applied colorimetry.  Since assuming the professorship, Dr. Berns has raised several million dollars in endowed scholarships, fellowships, equipment donations, and unrestricted grants for research and education in color science.

During 1987, Dr. Berns was elected to the Board of Directors of the Inter-Society Color Council and the Council for Optical Radiation Measurements. In 1989, he was appointed chairman of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) Division 2 technical committee on the measurement of color self-luminous displays.

Dr. Berns was the conference and program chairman for the Inter-Society Color Council Williamsburg conference on color discrimination psychophysics, held in 1989. During 1990, he was conference and program co-chairman for the Council for Optical Radiation Measurement annual meeting on quality, the key to optical radiation measurements, held in the new Carlson Center for Imaging Science.

In 1990, Dr. Berns was awarded the Inter-Society Color Council Macbeth Award. This award is presented biannually for recent significant contributions to the field of color.

During the early 1990's, Dr. Berns derived the CIE94 color difference equation based on his and other experimental data, summarized in CIE Publication 116.  He also contributed to CIE Publication 101 describing the influence of parametric factors on color discrimination.  As chair, he wrote the current CIE recommendation (CIE Publication 122) on building colorimetric device profiles for computer-controlled CRT displays based largely on his and his student’s research.

Currently, Dr. Berns' primary research interest is the spectral archiving and reproduction of cultural heritage. This includes visible multi-channel image acquisition, data-efficient spectral encoding, and multi-ink ink-jet printing. He is also interested in practical color management, digital photography, and color tolerance equations. In CIE technical committee 1-47 (hue and lightness-dependent correction to industrial color-difference evaluation), Dr. Berns has derived the hue-angle dependent function for the new CIEDE2000 color-difference equation (see reference 111).

At RIT, Dr. Berns teaches courses in applied colorimetry and the color modeling of materials and imaging systems.  The  Center for Imaging Science accepts visiting scientists supported by their companies to study and perform research with individual faculty members.  Scientists from Konica, Fuji, Fujitsu, Fuji-Xerox, Dupont, Panasonic, Samsung Aerospace, Samsung SAIT, Toppan, and Sony have engaged in research under Dr. Berns’ guidance.  Through development efforts with personal and corporate donors, the Grum Memorial Scholarship, the Macbeth-Engel Fellowship in Color Science, and the Saltzman Memorial Fund were promulgated at RIT under Dr. Berns’ leadership.

During the 1999 academic year, Dr. Berns was a Visiting Senior Fellow in Conservation Science at the National Gallery of Art, Washington. He was involved in four research topics: colorant selection for inpainting, direct digital capture of paintings, metamerism basics for artists, and quantifying the optical properties of painting varnishes using image analysis.

Also during 1999, Dr. Berns was awarded two technical awards: The Society of Imaging Science and Technology awarded Dr. Koichi Iino and Dr. Berns the Journal Award for the best imaging science paper during 1998 (see references 77 and 78); the Society of Plastics Engineers Color and Appearance Division awarded Dr. Berns with the best paper of the 1999 ANTEC conference  (see reference 93).

During 2000, Dr. Berns was invited to participate in the Technical Advisory Group of the Star-Spangled Banner Preservation Project. Also during 2000, he wrote the third edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology.

In 2002, Dr. Berns was made a fellow of the Society of Imaging Science and Technology. He is currently involved in a joint research program in museum imaging with the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC and the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Dr. Berns has presented invited papers and lectures at the following organizations: International Commission on Illumination, International Association of Colour, Inter-Society Color Council, Royal Photographic Society, Society of Imaging Science and Technology, Society for Information Display, International Society for Optical Engineering, Optical Society of America, Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Detroit Color Council, American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Society of Plastics Engineers, and the Australian Color Society.  He has lectured in countries including Canada, England, France, Monaco, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden, Japan, Argentina, and Australia.

 

TEXTBOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS

R. S. Berns and L.W. MacDonald, "Device Characterization: Displays," in P. Green and L.W. MacDonald and R. Luo, eds., Colour Engineering: Achieving Device Independent Colour , John Wiley & Sons, England, in press.

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.

R. S. Berns, "Challenges for colour science in multimedia imaging systems," in L. MacDonald and R. Luo, eds., Colour Imaging: Vision and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, England,  99-127, 1999.

PUBLICATIONS:

(Italicized names are post-doctoral fellows, student advisees, and visiting scientists)

122. R. S. Berns and R. Merrill, "Color science and painting," American Artist, 68-70, 72 (January, 2002).

121. R. S. Berns, "Sneaking scientific validity into imaging tools for the masses," Proc. IS&T First European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, in press (2002).

120. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative study of metrics for spectral match," Proc. IS&T First European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, in press (2002).

119. R. S. Berns and D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the third edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl., in press (2001).

118. S. Quan, N. Ohta, R. S. Berns, and N. Katoh, “Optimal design of camera spectral sensitivity functions based on practical filter components,” Proc. IS&T/SID Ninth Color Imaging Conference, 326-331 (2001).

117.  M. R. Rosen, L. A. Taplin, F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and N. Ohta, “Answering Hunt’s web shopping challenge: Spectral color management for a virtual swatch,” Proc. IS&T/SID Ninth Color Imaging Conference, 267-273 (2001).

116. L. A. Taplin and R. S. Berns, “Spectral color reproduction based on a six-color inkjet output system,” Proc. IS&T/SID Ninth Color Imaging Conference, 209-213 (2001). 

115. R. S. Berns and F. H. Imai, “Pigment identification of artist materials via multi-spectral imaging,” Proc. IS&T/SID Ninth Color Imaging Conference, 85-90 (2001).

114. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen and R. S. Berns, Multi-spectral imaging of a van Gogh’s self-portrait at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Proc. of IS&T PICS Conference, IS&T, 185-189 (2001).

113. F. H. Imai, S. Quan, M. R. Rosen and R. S. Berns, Digital camera filter design for colorimetric and spectral accuracy, in M. Hauta-Kasari, J. Hiltunen and J. Vanhanen, Eds., Proc. of Third International Conference on Multispectral Color Science, University of Joensuu, Finland, 23-16 (2001).

112. R. S. Berns and R. de la Rie, “Evaluating the effect of varnishes on the color and spatial image quality of paintings,” Proc. of IS&T PICS Conference, IS&T, Springfield, VA 181-184 (2001).

111. R. S. Berns, “Derivation of a hue-angle dependent, hue-difference weighting function for CIEDE2000,” AIC Color 01, Proc. of the 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, in press (2001). 

110. F. H. Imai, S. Quan, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Spectral estimation of artist oil paints using multi-filter trichromatic imaging,” AIC Color 01, Proc. of the 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, in press (2001).

 109. N. Katoh, T. Deguchi, and R. S. Berns, “An accurate characterization of CRT monitor (II) proposal for an extension to CIE method and its verification,” Optical Review, in press. 

108. N. Katoh, T. Deguchi, and R. S. Berns, “An accurate characterization of CRT monitor (I) verifications of past studies and clarifications of gamma,” Optical Review, in press. 

107. R. S. Berns, J. Krueger, and M. Swicklik, “Multiple pigment selection for inpainting using visible reflectance spectrophotometry,” Studies in Conservation, in press.

106. R. S. Berns, The science of digitzing paintings for color-accurate image archives: A review, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45 373-383 (2001). 

105. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, D. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Y. Tzeng, “Spectral reproduction from scene to hardcopy I: Input and Output,” Proc. SPIE 4306B 346-357 (2001). 

104. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, R. S.  Berns, N. Ohta, and N. Matsushiro, “Preliminary study on spectral image compression,” Proc. Color Forum Japan 2000, 67-70 (2000). 

103. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “Perceived color estimation of transparency films viewed under the photomechanical process condition using the RLAB color appearance model,” (Japanese) J. Printing Soc. Japan 37(6), 28-40 (2000). 

102. D. Y. Tzeng and R. S. Berns, “Spectral-based six-color separation minimizing metamerism,” Proc. IS&T/SID Eighth Color Imaging Conference, 342-347 (2000). 

101. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparison of spectrally narrow-band capture versus wide-band with a priori sample analysis for spectral reflectance estimation,” Proc. IS&T/SID Eighth Color Imaging Conference, 234-241 (2000). 

100. D. R. Wyble and R. S. Berns, “A critical review of spectral models applied to binary color printing", Color Res. Appl. 25, 4-19 (2000).

 99. E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 241-250 (2000).

98. F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Y. Tzeng, “A comparitive analysis of spectra; reflectance estimated in various spaces using a trischromatic camera system,” Imag. Sci. Tech. 44, 280-287 (2000).

97. D. Y. Tzeng and R. S. Berns, "Spectral-based ink selection for multiple-ink printing II. Optimal ink selection," Proc. IS&T/SID Seventh Color Imaging Conference, 182-187 (1999).  

96. F. H. Imai and R. S. Berns, "A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance reconstruction in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system," Proc. IS&T/SID Seventh Color Imaging Conference, 21-25 (1999).  

95. P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, "Quantization in multispectral color image acquisition," Proc. IS&T/SID Seventh Color Imaging Conference, 32-35 (1999).  

94. F. H. Imai and R. S. Berns, "Spectral estimation using trichromatic digital cameras," Proc. Intl. Sym. Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives, Chiba University, 42-49 (1999). 

93. R. S. Berns, "Munsell Color Science Laboratory industrial color difference consortium – current initiative and future directions," Proc. ANTEC 99, Plastics bridging the Millenium, Society of Plastics Engineers, 2873-2877 (1999). 

92. E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli," Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999). 

91. D. Y. Tzeng and R. S. Berns, "Spectral reflectance prediction of ink overprints by Kubelka-Munk turbid media theory," Proc. TAGA, 682-697 (1999). 

90. T. Deguchi, N. Katoh, R. S. Berns, " Clarification of 'gamma' and the accurate characterization of CRT monitors," Proc. SID International Symposium, Vol. XXX, 786-789 (1999).

89. R. S. Berns, F. H. Imai, P. D. Burns, and D. Y. Tzeng, "Multi-spectral-based color reproduction research at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory," Proc. SPIE 3409, 14-25 (1998).

88. F. H. Imai and R. S. Berns, “High-resolution multi-spectral image capture for fine arts preservation,” Proc. Fourth Argentina Color Conference, 21-22 (1998). 

87. D. Y. Tzeng and R. S. Berns, "Spectral-based ink selection for multiple-ink printing I. colorant estimation of original objects," Proc. IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference, 106-111(1998). 

86. F. H. Imai and R. S. Berns, “High-Resolution Multi-Spectral Image Archives - A Hybrid Approach," Proc. IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference, 224-227 (1998). 

85. P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, "Image Noise and Colorimetric Precision in Multispectral Image Capture," Proc. IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference, 83-85 (1998). 

84. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, "Perceived spatial image quality evaluation for black printer algortihms employing a colorimetric paradigm," (Japanese) Proc. 100th Spring Conference of the Japanese Society of Printing Science and Technology, 73-76 (1998). 

83. T. Kusunoki and R. S. Berns, "Visual scaling of image quality for CRT displays," SID Digest 29, 1112-1115 (1998). 

82. R. S. Berns, "Challenges for color science in multimedia imaging," Proc. Colour Imaging in Multimedia, Derby University, (1998).

81. R. S. Berns and N. Katoh, “The digital to radiometric transfer function for computer controlled CRT displays,” Proc. CIE Expert Symposium ‘97 Colour Standards for Image Technology, 34-37 (1997). 

80. G. J. Woolfe, R. S. Berns, and P. J. Alessi, “An improved method for CRT characterization based on spectral data,” Proc. CIE Expert Symposium ‘97 Colour Standards for Image Technology, 38-45 (1997). 

79. Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998). 

78. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “Building color management modules using linear optimization II. prepress system for offset printing,” J. Imag. Sci. Tech. 42, 99-114 (1998).  

77. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “Building color management modules using linear optimization I. desktop color system,” J. Imag. Sci. Tech. 42, 79-94 (1998). 

76. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “The effect of black printer separation algorithms on perceived spatial image quality,” Proc. IS&T/SID Fifth Color Imaging Conference, 163-168 (1997). 

75. R. S. Berns, “The importance of color appearance models in color management systems,” AIC Color 97, Proc. of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association, 110-115 (1997). 

74. R. S. Berns, Y. Qiao, L. A. Reniff, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold tolerances,” AIC Color 97, Proc. of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association, 110-115 (1997). 

73. K. Takemura, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “The preferred reproduction of skin color and chromatic adaptation,” AIC Color 97, Proc. of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association, 574-577 (1997). 

72. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “A spectral based model of color printing that compensates for optical interactions of multiple inks,” AIC Color 97, Proc. of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association, 610-613 (1997). 

71. P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, "Error propagation in color signal transformations," Color Res. Appl. 22,  280-289(1997). 

70. P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, “Modeling colorimetric error in electronic image acquisition,” Proc. IS&T/OSA Optics & Imaging in the Information Age, 147-149(1997).

 69. M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148-155 (1997). 

68. T. Tanaka, R. S. Berns, and M. D. Fairchild, "Predicting the image quality of color overhead transparencies using a color-appearance model," J. Electronic Imaging, 5, 154-165 (1997). 

67. R. S. Berns and L. A. Reniff, "A practical technique to diagnose spectrophotometric errors," Color Res. Appl. 22, 51-60 (1997). 

66. R. S. Berns, “A generic approach to color modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 318-325 (1997). 

65. R. S. Berns, “Review of colorimetry in image technology,” Proc. CIE Expert Symposium ‘96 Colour Standards for Image Technology, Pub. CIE x010-1996, 29-34 (1996). 

64. R. S. Berns, “Computer-controlled CRT colorimetry: a view from CIE,” Proc. IS&T/SID Fourth Color Imaging Conference, 227-229 (1996). 

63. P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” Proc. IS&T/SID Fourth Color Imaging Conference,  19-22  (1996).

62. R. S. Berns, "Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass-fail and colorimetric data," Color Res. Appl. 21, 459-472 (1996).

61. R. S. Berns, "Methods for characterizing CRT displays," Displays 16, 173-182 (1996). 

60. M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, and A. A. Lester, "Accurate color reproduction of CRT-displayed images as projected 35mm slides,” J. Electronic Imaging 5, 87-96 1996. 

59. R. S. Berns and M. J. Shyu, "Colorimetric characterization of a desktop drum scanner using a spectral model," J. Electronic Imaging 4, 360-372 (1995).

58. R. S. Berns and H. K. Choh, "CRT to reflection print matching under mixed chromatic adaptation using RLAB," J. Electronic Imaging 4, 347-359 (1995). 

57. P. C. Hung and R. S. Berns, "Determination of constant hue loci for a CRT gamut and their predictions using color appearance spaces," Color Res. Appl. 20, 285-295 (1995). 

56R. S. Berns and K. Iino, "Spectral modeling of an ink jet printer," Electronic Imaging, 5 No. 2, 3 (1995). 

55. R. S. Berns, "Applied colorimetry Part II: Imaging applications," Optics Photonics News, 6(10) 23-27 (1995). 

54. R. S. Berns, "Applied colorimetry Part I: The basics and materials applications," Optics Photonics News, 6(9) 23-27 and 53 (1995).

53. R. S. Berns, "Rochester Institute of Technology Promotes Color Science," Digital Output, Vol.1, No. 2, 40 (1995). 

52. R. S. Berns and M. J. Shyu, "Colorimetric characterization of a desktop drum scanner via image modeling," Proc. Second IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference, 41-44 (1994).  

51. M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, A. A. Lester, and H. K. Shin, "Accurate color reproduction of CRT-displayed images as projected 35mm slides" Proc. Second IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference, 69-73 (1994).  

50. R. S. Berns, "Color science education in the 1990's," Color Res. Appl. 19, 74-76 (1994).

49. R. S. Berns and M. E. Gorzynski, "Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues," Proc. AIC Colour and Light 91, 21-24 (1994).

48.R. S. Berns, "Color science education in the 1990's," Proc. AIC Colour and Light 91, 135-138 (1994). 

47. T. Kohler and R. S. Berns, "Reducing metamerism and increasing gamut using five or more colored inks," Proc. of  IS&T Third Technical Symposium on Prepress, Proofing and Printing, 24-28 (1993). 

46. T. Kim, R. S. Berns, and M. D. Fairchild, "Color Appearance models using pictorial images,"  Proc. First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference, 72-77 (1993). 

45. R. S. Berns, "Spectral modeling of a dye diffusion thermal transfer printer," J. Electronic Imaging, 2, 359-370 (1993). 

44. R. S. Berns, "Mathematics of CIE colorimetry," Proc. Advanced Colorimetry, CIE publication No. X007, 7-17 (1993).  

43. R. S. Berns, "Synopsis of roundtable discussion on colorimetry in industry," Proc. AIC Colour 93, Vol. A, R03-01-R03-03 (1993).

42. R. S. Berns, "The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH," Proc. AIC Colour 93, Vol. B, C19-1-C19-4 (1993). 

41. M. D. Fairchild and R. S. Berns, "Color appearance specification for cross-media color reproduction," Proc. AIC Colour 93, Vol. B, C11-1-C11-5  (1993). 

40. R. S. Berns, M. E. Gorzynski, and R. J. Motta, "CRT colorimetry, part II: metrology," Color  Res. Appl. 18, 315-325 (1993). 

39. R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, and M. E. Gorzynski, "CRT colorimetry, part I: theory and practice" Color  Res. Appl. 18, 299-314  (1993). 

38. M. D. Fairchild and R. S. Berns, "Image color-appearance specification through extension of CIELAB," Color  Res. Appl. 18,  178-190 (1993).

37. T. Hoshino and R. S. Berns, "Color gamut mapping techniques for color hard copy images," Proc. SPIE 1909 ,152-165  (1993). 

36. R. S. Berns, "Color WYSIWYG: a combination of device colorimetric characterization and appearance modeling," Society for Information Display Digest, 549-552 (1992). 

35. M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Precision requirements for digital color reproduction," ACM Transactions on Graphics 11, 406-422 (1992). 

34. M. Stokes, M. D. Fairchild, and R. S. Berns, "Colorimetrically quantified tolerances for pictorial images," TAGA 2, 757-778 (1992). 

33. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M.R.  Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of supra-threshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991). 

32. R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of color-difference vectors using probit analysis: phase II," Proc. of the 22nd Session of the CIE, part I, 35-38 (1991). 

31. R. S. Berns and M.E. Gorzynski, "Characterizing the total uncertainty of the colorimetric calibration of color video displays," Proc. of the 22nd Session of the CIE, part I, 35-38 (1991). 

30. R. S. Berns, "A color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating," Color Res. Appl. 16, 232-242 (1991).

 29. K. H. Parton and R. S. Berns, "Color modeling of ink-jet ink on paper using Kubelka-Munk theory," Proc. of IS&T 7th International Congress on Advanced Non-Impact Printing Technologies, Vol 2 (1991).

28. Y. Liu, R. S. Berns and Y. Shu, "An optimization algorithm for designing colored glass filters to simulate CIE illuminant D65," Color Res. Appl. 16, 89-96 (1991). 

27. R. S. Berns and R. G. Kuehni, "What determines crossover wavelengths of metameric pairs with three crossovers?" Color Res. Appl. 15, 23-28 (1990). 

26. M. E. Gorzynski and R. S. Berns, "Effects of ambient illumination and image color balance on the perception of neutral in hybrid image display systems," SPIE Proc. Vol. 1250, 111-118 (1990). 

25. M.D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, J. Peterson, and R. S. Berns, "Absolute reflectance factor calibration for goniospectrophotometry," Color Res. Appl. 15, 311-320 (1990). 

24. R. S. Berns and R. G. Kuehni, "Dependence of crossover wavelengths of metameric pairs on colorant absorption properties,  Color 89, Proc. of the 6th Congress of the International Color Association, 178-180 (1989).

23. D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, "Performance Testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset," Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).

22. R. S. Berns, D.H. Alman, G.D. Snyder, and W.A. Larsen, "Evaluation of color-difference equations using a visual color tolerance dataset,"  Book of Papers, Nat'l. Tech. Conf., Tex. Chem. Col., 115-117 (1988).

21. R. S. Berns and R. J. Motta, "Colorimetric calibration of soft-copy devices to aid in hard-copy reproduction," Proc. SPSE 41st Annual Conference, 266-269 (1988).

20. A. Greenfield and R. S. Berns, "The colorimetric measurement of color cathode ray tubes using a Tracor Northern TN-1710 array radiometer," Proc. SPSE 41st Annual Conference, 270-271 (1988).

19. R. S. Berns and K. H. Petersen, "Empirical modeling of systematic spectrophotometric errors," Color Res. Appl. 13, 243-256 (1988). 

18. E. Walowit, C. J. McCarthy, and R. S. Berns, "Spectrophotometric color matching based on two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory," Color Res. Appl.  13, 358-362  (1988). 

17. R. S. Berns, M. D. Fairchild and M. M. Beering, "The quantification of illuminant metamerism for four coloration systems vis metameric mismatch gamuts," Color Res. Appl.  13, 346-357 (1988). 

16. M. D. Fairchild and R. S. Berns, "Implementation of recommended ocular exposure thresholds for the evaluation of xenon flashes", J. Imaging Tech. 13, 8-13 (1987).

15. R. Grum, M. D. Fairchild and R. S. Berns, "Goniospectrophotometric characteristics of common transfer standards with respect to CIE normal/45 geometry, Proc. ISCC Williamsburg, 43-46 (1987).

14. R. S. Berns, D. A. Alman and G. D. Snyder, "Visual determination of color-difference vectors," Proc. 21st Session of the CIE, Vol. I, 62-65 (1987).

13. F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild and R. S. Berns, "Goniospectrophotometric characteristics of white reflectance standards with respect to the CIE normal/45 geometry," Proc. 21st Session of the CIE, Vol. I, 134-137 (1987).

12. N. Burningham and R. S. Berns, "Analysis of color in electrophotographic images", Proc. SPSE 40th Annual Conference, 90-93 (1987).

11. E. Walowit, C. J. McCarthy, and R. S. Berns, "An algorithm for the optimization of Kubelka-Munk absorption and scattering coefficients," Color Res. Appl. 12, 340-343  (1987). 

10. R. S. Berns and F. Grum, "Illuminating artwork:  Consider the illuminating source," Color Res. Appl. 12, 63-72 (1987). 

9. R. S. Berns, "A fortran program for predicting the effects of chromatic adaptation on color appearance based on current CIE recommendations," Color Res. Appl. 11, 82-88 (1986).

8. R. S. Berns and F.W. Billmeyer, Jr., "Development of the 1929 Munsell book of color:  a historical review," Color Res. Appl. 10, 246-250 (1985). 

7. R. S. Berns, "Metameric mismatch limits of industrial colorants," Mondial Couleur 85, Proc. of the 5th Congress of the International Color Association, paper 40  (1985). 

6. R. S. Berns, F. W. Billmeyer, Jr. and R. S. Sacher, "Methods for generating spectral reflectance functions leading to color-constant properties," Color Res. Appl. 10, 73-83 (1985). 

5. F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., R. S. Berns and R. S. Sacher, "Color-constant extensions of the Munsell book of color," Preprint for Forsius Symposium on Color Order Systems, Association of International Color (AIC) Midterm meeting, Kungalv, Sweden  (1983). 

4. R. S. Berns and F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., "Proposed indices of metamerism with constant chromatic adaptation," Color Res. Appl. 8, 186-189 (1983). 

3. H. L. Needles, R. S. Berns, W. Lu, K. Alger, and D. S. Varma, "Effect of nonionic surfactant and heat on selected properties of polyester,"J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 25, 1737-1744 (1980). 

2. R. S. Berns, and H. L. Needles, "The effect of microwave vs conduction heating on the solvent-assisted dyeing of polyester fibre with anthraquinoid disperse dyes," J. Soc. Dyers Col. 95, 297-211 (1979). 

1. H. L. Needles, A. Tai, R. S. Berns and K.W. Alger, "Microwave-induced dyeing and finishing processes on textile substrates," Book of Papers, Nat'l. Tech. Conf., Tex. Chem. Col., 1977.

March, 2002

 

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